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Category: Islam

   Islam’s Tolerance in interacting with non-Muslims

 

Introduction

Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds, the Forgiving, the Merciful, and peace be upon the prophet and his followers to the Day of Resurrection.
Tolerance refers to lenience and compassion, as Ibn Atheer said: ‘Tolerance is lenience’ El-Firozabadi said: ‘To be tolerant means to be lenient’ (1), and tolerance is a form of compassion towards souls, who are inclined to love whoever is kind to them. Tolerance contributes to love, harmony, and the renunciation of violence, for tolerance is the core of righteousness, a purified soul, free of violence and extremism.Moreover, Allah commanded His Messenger, peace be upon him, to manifest the utmost tolerance, for Allah says: ‘But bear with them and pardon them. Allah loveth the kind’ (2) He also says: ‘Forgive with a grace’ (3) Whereas amnesty means to grant pardon, forgiveness means a willingness to forgive (4) and willingness to forgive is of the utmost tolerance, something Allah commands his believers to manifest. Allah says: ‘And those who came into the faith after them say: Our Lord, Forgive us and our brethren who were before us in the faith, and place not in our hearts any ill will toward those who believe. Our Lord, you are Full of Pity, Merciful.’ (5).Furthermore, Allah has blessed us with a tolerant religion, which he bestowed upon the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him. This merciful religion in which friendliness, tolerance, forgiveness, and advice are emphasized in the religious texts of the Quran and the Prophetic tradition. Hence, the very first phase of tolerance was manifested in the Prophet’s city, peace be upon him, through his interactions with Muslims and Non-Muslims for his words and deeds were a demonstration of all aspects of tolerance.Unfortunately, some people are not aware of our religion’s reality. The truth is that pardoning, forgiveness, and tolerance are as integral parts of Islam, as Islam to them. The opposite of tolerance – violence or extremism – have no basis or justification in Islam, and are merely the result of a minority of people attempting to use religion to justify their own whimsical, misguided and evil desires. Therefore, I have gathered this research using clear evidences from the Quran, Sunnah and authentic history in order to clarify Islam’s righteous standpoint.Islam’s Tolerance in interacting with non-MuslimsThe Prophet’s tolerance, peace be upon him, was not just limited to Muslims, but included people of the Book and other religions as well. For example, he told Muslims to be kind to Coptic Christians when he said: ‘When you concur Egypt be kind to Copts, for they have sanctity an connections’ (6) (7). In Saheeh Muslim there is a hadith: ‘You will encounter a land in which ‘carat’ is used and mentioned there, so be kind to its people for they have sanctity and connections’ (8) (9). Al-Nawawi mentioned in a narration, ‘You will encouter Egypt, a land in which carat is mentioned; they have sanctity and connections’ (10) … Carat is a currency which is part of dinar, dirham, and others, which Egyptians used and spoke a lot about it; as for its sanctity, its right and prohibition in the sense of Alzmam, whereas connections refers to: Hajar, mother of Ismail, being one of them and Maria Qubtia Ibrahim’s mother (11).As for his tolerance with Jews, the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, accepted and believed in Jews testimony as when they swore that they did not murder, nor know who was the culprit in the murderer of one of the companions killed in a Jewish neighborhood in Khaybar. As Bukhaari narrated from Bashir ibn Yasar: ‘It was claimed that a man from Ansar called Sahl ibn Abi Hathmah told him, that some of his people set off to Khaybar where they found a dead man, and said to the ones who found him, “You killed our companion.” But they replied, “We didn’t murder him nor do we know his murderer.” They then went to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and said, “O Messenger of Allah, we set off to Khaybar and found one of us dead!” He said, “That is one of the greatest sins. Do you have any evidence of who killed him?” They replied, “No.” He said, “Then they have to swear.” The companions protested, “But do we accept a Jews testimony?” The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, hated the idea of a murderer being unknown, so instead paid one hundred camels from charity as ransom’ (12) (13).Ibn Hajar said in his explanation of the noun ‘swear’ that it is according to the testimony of the deceased’s relatives, and if they demanded defendants or murderers to be subjected to penalty, he also denoted the word (qasama – testimony) to murder in particular. Imam of the Two Holy mosques said that to linguists, testimony is a designation referring to people who swear and testify. He also said in ‘Mohkam’: Testimony refers to a group swearing or testifying to something they’ve witnessed. Al-Qurtubi said in ‘Mufhm’: The Prophet, peace be upon him, accepted their testimony due to his wisdom and generosity as well as to ward off evil and bring about righteousness and harmony, especially since the convict remained unknown. Judge Iyad said: ‘This Hadith is one of the sources and principles of Islam’s verdicts, since it was espoused by all the imams, the companions’ predecessor, followers, nation’s scholars of the regions of Hijaz, Sham, and Kofa’ (14). Al-Nawawi in his explanation of this hadith said, ‘This demonstrates the validity of taking testimony from a non-Muslim’ (15).In addition, if we examine the treaties made by the Prophet, peace be upon him, we will notice the varied aspects of tolerance and equality in these treaties, such as The Madinah Constitutional Announcement, which had forty-seven paragraphs, and included a treaties sections with the Jews; some of it is as follows:24 – Jews spend money with Muslims as long as they’re warriors.31 – Jews of Bani Thalaba, have the same right as Jews of Bani Awf except for those who sin and are unjust .37 – Jews and Muslims should provide for themselves independently, but must work together in defeating whoever battles them; and they should counsel and advise each other.45 – When they are asked to reconcile they must reconcile, as each side must ally with the other parties’ allies, except for those who fight us against our religion.46 – As Jews and their masters, have the same rights as the right of Jews mentioned in this document, and Allah is the best witness to this document.47 – This treaty doesn’t guarantee the rights of the sinful or unjust, but whoever ventures out of Madina is safe, and whoever resides in it is safe, except for the heinously sinful or unjust. May Allah protect the righteous, and the Messenger of Allah Muhammad, peace be upon him. (16).Ibn Zenjoah commented about the quote, ‘Jews spend money with Muslims as long as they’re warriors,’ refers to spending money on battle in particular, for they are required in assisting them in their battles against their enemies, and therefore Jews had to contribute in Muslims’ battles and in return Muslims shared the spoils with them. As for saying, ‘Jews of Bani Awf are part of Muslims’ nation,’ it refers to their assistance to Muslims in battle through their stipulated alimony, although doesn’t refer to their religion since it is stated: ‘Jews have their religion and Muslims have their religion.’ (17).Furthermore, the biographer Dr. Akram Ben Dhia Alomrey, in analyzing this treaty, explains that 25 to 35 addressed the relationship with Aws and Khazraj Jews, as it referred to their Arabic tribes, and approved of their treaty with Muslims. ‘Jews of Bani Awf are part of Muslims’ nation’: this phrase has been mentioned in the book, ‘A Nation of Believers,’ which quoted Abu Obaid as saying, ‘He was referring to their assistance to Muslims in battling their enemies, through their stipulated alimony, but it doesn’t refer to their religion as he stated: Jews have their religion and Muslims have their religion.’ (18) Ibn Ishak said: ‘With the faithful’ is the more accurate phrase (19).The Prophet’s tolerance is demonstrated in how he dealt with the people of the scripture as well as with those who violated certain commands. Despite discovering their violations he gave them milk as a gift. His tolerance is also demonstrated in how he dealt with Labeed Ben Aloasm who cast a spell on him by using a lock of his hair and throwing it with dried palms’ pollen in Rawan well. When he told Aisha about it she exclaimed, ‘Do we not extract it?’ But he replied, ‘I was cured, and I hated to stir the evil within that might affect people, so ordered it to be buried’ (22) (23) Moreover, he was even forgiving with some of the hypocrites and pardoned the hypocrite Abdullah ibn Abi ibn Salool who spread the fabrication story (24); he even covered Abdullah ibn Salool with his shirt when he died, and ask forgiveness for him, until Allah revealed: ‘Whether you ask forgiveness for the hypocrites, or do not ask forgiveness for them, it is the same; for even if you ask forgiveness for them seventy times Allah will not forgive them’ (25).Likewise, the Prophet, peace be upon him, pardoned Abdullah bin Al Kwaisira Attamimi when, while the Prophet was dividing the spoils, he said to him, ‘O Messenger of Allah, be just.’ The Prophet replied: ‘Woe if I’m not just then who is?’ ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab said ‘Let me strike his neck.’ But the Prophet said, ‘Let him be, for he has companions who you would scorn your prayers if you compare it to their prayers, and fasting with their fasts, yet they pass through religion as an arrow from the bow, and if you look at the blade, there is nothing there, then look at the stem, there is nothing there, then look at its feathers and there is nothing there; it preceded blood and flesh…’ Here he uses metaphor comparing the speed in which they leave religion to the speed of a dart that penetrates flesh, without blood or flesh sticking to it, due to its speed. He continued: ‘Their symbol is a man in which one of his hands is like a swaying piece of meat; they revolt against a group of people.’ Abu Sa’eed said: ‘I bear witness, I heard from the Prophet, peace be upon him, and I bear witness that Ali killed them while I was with him.’ It is also said that this verse was revealed about The man who reproached the Prophet peace be upon about the spoils. Allah said: ‘And of them is he who defameth you in the matter of the alms.’ (26)) (27). All this is evidence of the Messenger’s, peace be upon him, great tolerance that he pardoned him.He also had very tolerant interactions with non-Muslims. As Nasai narrated, Abdullah bin Mugafal Muzani said: ‘We were with the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, in Alhdibah at the origin of the tree that Allah mentioned, and one the branches of that tree was on the back of the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him, so I lifted it from his back, and Ali ibn Abi Talib and Suhail bin Amr were with him; then the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said, ‘Write down, “In the name of Allah the most Merciful, the most Gracious.” Suhail took his hand and said: “We don’t know the Merciful, write in our case, as we are accustomed to.” The Prophet said: “Write down God, in the name of thee.” This is how Muhammad the Messenger of Allah reconciled with the people of Mecca. Suhail then stopped his hand and said: “We have wronged you. If you are a messenger, write down in our case as we know, he said: “Write: ‘This is what Mohammed bin Abdullah bin Abdul Muttalib reconciled on, and I am the Messenger of God.'” He wrote as such, then thirty armed young men came out, raging in anger, and the Prophet peace be upon him prayed to Allah and then Allah took their sight. Then the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said, “Did you come under someone’s command or did someone ensure your safety?” They said they didn’t so he released them.’ And Allah Almighty revealed: ‘He it is Who has withheld men’s hands from you, and hath withheld your hands from them in the valley of Mecca, after He had made you victors over them. Allah is the Seer of what you do.’ (28) (29)) (30).Although he could have captured or killed them, his tolerance let them go and say to the people of Mecca: Go you are free. The Prophet’s tolerance is manifested even at battle when he said to them: ‘Whoever enters Abu Sufyan’s house of is safe, whoever closes his door is safe, and whoever throws away his armor is safe.’ (31) He was also forgiving with idolaters, as he did not prevent Muslims from interacting with their non-Muslim parents. Bukhaari narrated from Asma Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with them: ‘My mother wanted to visit me in the era of the Prophet, peace be upon him, and so I asked the Prophet whether I should keep connections with her and he said yes’ (32) (33).Practicing tolerance bears fruit at all times, and we witness its impact upon the companions and followers and those who came after them to this day; we see the caliphate Ibn Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, tolerance with the non-Muslims. Bukhaari narrates from Abdullah ibn Dinar: ‘I heard Ibn ‘Umar say: “Umar saw a Sara suit (34) being sold and said: O Messenger of Allah, buy this and wear it on Friday, and when delegates come”; but he replied: “Those who wear this are only the ones who have no clothes,” then the Prophet peace be upon him received some of these clothes and sent Umar one of them. Umar then said: “How can I wear it after what you have said?” He said: “I did not send it for you to wear, but to sell it or give it away.” Umar then sent it to his brother from the people of Mecca before he converted to Islam.’ (35). Another example, is in the time of Mu’awiya may Allah be pleased with him, when the infidels broke their treaty with Muslims yet the Muslims didn’t fight them and said rather: ‘Loyalty instead of treason is better than treason with an excuse’ (36).Likewise, the Prophet, peace be upon him, espoused an approach of utmost tolerance, as when he said: ‘Pay back what were entrusted to, to the one who entrusted you, and never betray the one who betrays’ (37) (38). There is another model in the time of the followers, Bukhaari narrated that Abu Qulaba said that Umar bin Abdul Aziz said to people: What do you think of testimonies? They said: testimonies are the code of righteousness, and caliphs have benefited from it. Then he told me: what do you say, O Abu Qulaba? And people have appointed me? I said: O Commander of the Faithful, you have armies and honorable Arab leaders, what would you do if fifty of them testified that an immune (what is meant by this?) man in Damascus had committed adultery, but didn’t witness that, would you have punished him? He said: No. I said: What would you do if fifty of them testified that a man in Homs committed thievery, would you have punished him, when they didn’t witness it? He said: No… (39). Thus, testimony is an accurate method in validating and verifying the convict, while suspicions are not.Islam’s’ tolerance in mercantile affairs and adjudication:The Prophet, peace be upon him, also urged people to maintain tolerance while buying or selling, he said: ‘May Allah have mercy on a tolerant man while selling, purchasing and demanding adjudication’ (40) (41) this includes dealing with both Muslim and non-Muslims.Ibn Hajar said: ‘The phrase “May Allah have mercy on a man” is either a prayer or an informative phrase.’ Ibn Habeeb al-Maliki and Ibn Battal and Daoudi asserted the first assumption… as ‘tolerant’ means lenient, an adjective… and the word tolerant is derived from tolerance; and ‘adjudication’ means to demand adjudication with a tolerant attitude… This motivates Muslims to embrace tolerant morals, refrain from bickering, and be forgiving with people (42).Similarly, the Prophet, peace be upon him, urged Muslims to be tolerant in loans and postpone it for the insolvent, he said: ‘Angels received a man of those who came before you and said: “Did you do any virtuous deed?” He said: “I commanded my subordinates to be tolerant with loaners and postpone it for the insolvent.” For this he was forgiven.’ (43) (44 ).Hafiz Ibn Hajar states that the solvent and insolvent refer to the same word, but were used here to refer to insolvency due to custom (45). This demonstrates that tolerance includes varied aspects, such as the economic aspect in buying and selling, which is carried out every day, and reveals that tolerance is not uncommon but is constantly renewed.Islam’s tolerance of in preventing limit’s transgressionSome hostile anti-Islamists claim that Islam is a violent religion, founded or spread by the sword and that some Islamic limits and rules are too intense, barbaric or uncivilized. A serious accusation against Islam’s tolerance. These rumors which target Islam have been spreading since the incident of fabrication to our time, as these rumors are a form of psychological warfare. I translate here the words of the German orientalist DC Kambfmaar, editor of the Muslim world magazine: ‘The attack on Islam is futile, as it won’t keep Muslims away from their religion, and won’t hinder Islamic Renaissance, but only reinforce it’ (46) Thus, Islamaphobes must learn that Islam only used the sword against those who threatened the safety and sovereignty of the polity, just like any modern nation would do today in self-defense. When Islam was actually an empire or a nation – in pre-modern times – it always gave freedom of religion to non-Muslims and would even protect them and their churches, temples, etc. in return for a tax collected from them.Moreover, whatever few penalties do exist in Islamic law, they are very seldom carried out, and the spirit of forgiveness, pardon and tolerance is always superior. Most potential can never in fact be carried out because the necessary conditions are not met, such as establishing unwavering proof on the crime and the perpetrator, without a shadow of doubt, by securing up to 4 sane, adult witnesses. The wisdom in requiring so many eye-witnesses is that Allah loves forgiveness, and thus it is actually rare and difficult to administer penal punishment because such a number of legitimate witnesses are rarely found or present. (47). Ibn al-Qayyim, may Allah have mercy on him, said: ‘It is due to Allah’s wisdom and mercy that he does not punish perpetrators in this life or the Hereafter without establishing tangible proof against them; and that proof is either admitting the crime or producing valid evidence presented by just witnesses’ (48).Even if someone harbors a desire to commit a heinous crime or intends to do it, he is strongly reprimanded but never actually punished unless he actually commits it; as when the Prophet, peace be upon him, advised a young man who came to him requesting permission to commit adultery. Instead of giving him harsh words or shouting, the Prophet, peace be upon him, asked him in an even tone: ‘Would you like such a thing for your mother?’ ‘No, of course not, I swear may Allah make me your redemption,’ replied the man; the Prophet then said: ‘And people wouldn’t like it for their mothers either. And would you like for your daughter?’ The man replied, ‘No I swear! May Allah make me your redemption O Messenger of Allah!’ The Prophet continued ‘And people wouldn’t like it for their daughters either. And would you like for your sister? or for your aunt?’ And the man replied as before. Then the Prophet put his hand on the man’s chest and said: ‘Oh Allah, forgive his sins, cleanse his heart and protect his chastity,’ and it is said that the boy never had any of these inclinations again after the Prophet’s prayer ) (57) (58).The Prophet’s tolerance prevented him from punishing or harshly reproaching the young man. There were some companions who wanted to reproach him, but the Prophet’s inquires, peace be upon him, taught that young man and others a great lesson, reminding them that adultery with a woman is inevitably adultery either with someone’s mother, daughter, sister or aunt; such a realization refines one’ emotions and brings reason back to his mind. Even more, it is incumbent on a Muslim to cover the faults of his brother or sister in faith, and not to reveal someone’s sins openly. ‘He who covers up a Muslim’s sins in this world, Allah will cover up for him in this world and hereafter. (59) (60)It is also accepted that righteous acts of worship such as prayer and fasting will expiate for sins or misdeeds. Abi Omamamay, Allah be pleased with him, said that a man came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, I have transgressed so give me the penalty.’ The Prophet asked: ‘Did you perform abolition before you came?’ He said, Yes. Then he asked: ‘Did you pray with us while we prayed?’ He said, Yes. Finally he said, ‘Go, for Allah the Almighty has forgiven you.’ (77) (78), This Hadith emphasizes the importance of tolerance. Al-Nawawi said that the sin he committed was a minor sin (79). This also demonstrates tolerance, forgiveness and general facilitation in Islam. Even the Orientalist Louis Young says: The west has yet to learn various things from the Islamic civilization; one of those things is the Arabs’ tolerant disposition (80).When there are penalties in Islam, they are in fact consistent with the provisions of previous penal codes in other religions such as Judaism and Christianity. Thus, the consistency between Islamic laws and the people of the Book with regards to scriptures, indicates that divine celestial religious laws are compatible in many of the provisions that came from one source, i.e. God.This does not mean that Islam was influenced by the Romans or the people of the scriptures, but that the Quran was revealed as the seal of the divine books sent to humankind, just as Muhammad was the last of all prophets. Allah said in the Quran: ‘We have revealed the Scripture to you with truth, confirming that which came before it as a watcher over it,’ (81). Imam al-Tabari says: ‘We revealed a ratification of earlier books which Allah revealed to His prophets’ (82) ‘We have sent down the Book which We revealed to you, O Muhammad, that confirms the books that preceded it, and a proof that they are sent from Allah.’ (83). Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: ‘A watcher over it’ (84) means the dominant, since the Quran codifies and seals all the scriptures before it (85). Al-Tabari narrated that Hasan al-Basri said: ‘This means certifying these books, and a watcher over them (86). Allah said: ‘He ordained for you the same religion which He sent unto Noah, and that which We inspire in you, O Muhammad, and that which We sent unto Abraham and Moses and Jesus, saying: Establish the religion, and be not divided therein. Dreadful for the idolaters is that unto which you call them. Allah chooses for Himself whom He wills, and guides unto Himself whoever turns toward Him. (13) They were not divided until after the knowledge came to them, through rivalry among themselves; and had it not been for a Word that had already gone forth from your Lord for an appointed term, it surely had been judged between them. And those who were made to inherit the Scripture after them are in hopeless doubt concerning it. (14) Call unto this, O Muhammad. And be upright as you are commanded, and do not follow their lusts, but say rather: I believe in whatever scripture Allah has sent down, and I am commanded to be just among you. Allah is our Lord and your Lord. We have our works and you have yours; there is no dispute between us. Allah will bring us together, and to Him is the journeying.’ (87). Thus the Sharia that Allah has legislated to us is the same sharia that he legislated to previous nations in the eras of Noah, Abraham, Jesus and Moses, peace and blessings be upon all of them.The great scholar Imam al-Ghazali mentioned that religious laws – even amongst different religions – have differed very little (88). This was also conveyed by Muhammad Abu Zahra, who added the penalties in any society help protect the individual and public from harm or wrongdoing, and helps to sustain basic human rights (89).
Even more, Islam’s tolerance is manifested in the right of self-defense, since a defendant has the right to defend himself and getting the charges dropped, either by proving the invalidity of charges pressed against him, or by proving that the plaintiff has no right to press charges against him. This concept is defined by some scholars as ‘dropping charges’: a lawsuit brought in court by the defendant, with the intention of dropping charges or invalidating it (90).Islam’s tolerance in cases of necessityIslam always took care not to carry out penalties in times of hardship, such as famine and poverty, or other difficult or forced situations. Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, denoted them cases (fourteen in all) of exception as follows: the need for food (hunger or thirst), medicine, coercion, forgetfulness, ignorance, hardship or shame, calamity , travel, illness, natural lack (91). Each one of these cases has its verdicts, provisions and facilitations, and aren’t blameworthy all the time; this is due to Islam’s inherent lenience and tolerance, which should and must take into account these cases and how they might be forgiven and pardoned .The French legalist Lambert said: ‘ The theory of necessity in Islamic jurisprudence is more assertive and inclusive than the idea founded in public international law, in the theory of changing circumstances (of the case remaining as it is), in the French administrative court, in the theory of emergency circumstances, in English court, in inflexibility theory in suspension of commitment under the economic circumstances pressure, caused by war, and in the American judiciary constitutional theory of sudden accidents’ (92).The German and French legal Anglo-Saxon schools, were in fact influenced by Islamic jurisprudence in the theory of legitimate necessity. As one scholar notes: ‘The theory of necessity in the general law, is biased on the same principles of legitimate defense rights in criminal law, for countries’ self-defense is the same as humans’ self-defense against what he is threatened with, as all laws agree on the deterrence of legitimate self-defense punishment, although they differ in the basis upon which to build this right and its limits and extent. These two opinions are: 1) the belief that defense is one of the reasons for legalization committed deeds, and 2) defense is merely an excuse to prevent criminal responsibility. The German school, in accordance with Islamic jurisprudence, espoused the first opinion, while the French Anglo-Saxon school espoused the second opinion, which itself is sometimes is compatible or permitted in some cases of Islamic Jurisprudence (93).
Finally, the theme of Islam’ tolerance proves that Islam has nothing to do with violence or extremism, for it is the religion of ease and lenience , an eternal sign of toleration and mercy; Allah Almighty says: ‘He has sent His messenger with the guidance and the religion of truth, that He may cause it to prevail.’ (94) Hence, Islam is a universal religion, and Allah is the only god worthy of worship , and His Messenger, is a mercy to humanity. Allah Almighty says: ‘We sent you as a mercy to the worlds.’ (95) and the Quran is a reminder of this mercy to the world: ‘It is a reminder to the peoples.’ (96)And our final prayer is, praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds._______________________________________________
Verses IndexAsk forgiveness for them (O Muhammad), or ask not forgiveness for them; though thou ask forgiveness for them seventy times Allah will not forgive them.8He hath ordained for you that religion which He commended unto Noah, and that which We inspire in thee 22And because of their breaking their covenant, We have cursed them and made hard their hearts. They change words from their context 2Unto this, then, summon (O Muhammad). And be thou upright as thou art commanded, and follow not their lusts, but say: I believe in whatever scripture Allah hath sent down22He it is Who hath sent His messenger with the guidance and the religion of truth, that He may cause it to prevail over all religion. And Allah suffices as a Witness 25And unto thee have We revealed the Scripture with the truth, confirming whatever Scripture was before it, and a watcher over it 21that the wrath of Allah be upon her if he speaketh truth..14And those who came (into the faith) after them say: Our Lord! Forgive us and our brethren who were before us in the faith. 2As for those who accuse their wives but have no witnesses except themselves; let the testimony of one of them be four testimonies14And they were not divided until after the knowledge came unto them, through rivalry among themselves; and had it not been for a Word that had already gone forth from thy Lord for an appointed term, 22We created not the heavens and the earth and all that is between them save with truth, and lo! the Hour is surely coming 2And He it is Who hath withheld men’s hands from you, and hath withheld your hands from them, in the valley of Mecca, after He had made you victors over them 9They question thee (O Muhammad) concerning menstruation. Say: It is an illness, so let women alone at such times7
________________________________________________________Hadith IndexMy nation came to me submissively, in the time of the Prophet , I asked the Prophet about its origin? He Said: Yes 10Would you like it for your mother? he said: No, I swear , May Allah make me your redemption , he said: people do not like for their mothers 0.16A man came to the Messenger of Allah in a mosque, called out and said, O Messenger of Allah, I committed adultery 0.17pay-off what you have been entrusted in ,to who entrusted you, and do not betray the one who betrays 11When you concur Egypt be kind to Copts , for they have sanctity an connections 4Forgive the morals’ mistakes , except for limits 19Jews didn’t engage in any sexual intercourse with their wives if they menstruated , nor meet with them in their houses 7That a man came to the Prophet said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, I have violated a limit , he said: did you perform abolition ?20Hilal bin Umaya accused his wife of committing adultery with Sharik Bin Samha ,in the presence of the Prophet, the Prophet then said : proof 14While the Prophet was dividing the spoils , a man came to him and said: O Messenger of Allah ,be just . He said :woe , who would be just if I wasn’t 8The angels Received a man from those who came before you , they said : have you done any virtuous deed? 12Maez bin Malik came to the Prophet and said, ‘O Messenger of Allah purify me, he said : woe ,go back 18‘Umar saw a Alsara suit , a type of fabric 10Allah bless a tolerant man if he sells, purchases , and demands judgment 12Claimed that a man from the Ansar called Sahl ibn Abi Hathmah told him that a party of his people, 4You will concur a land, in which carat is mentioned there (as in used),so be kind to its people for they have sanctity and connections 4You will concur Egypt, a land in which carat is mentioned , included: they have sanctity and connections 4He felt the pain of stoning and cried out: O my people take me back to the Messenger of Allah, my clan killed me 15I was cured, and I hated to stir the evil within that might affect people, ordered it to be buried 8We were with the Messenger of Allah in alhdibah ,at the origin of the tree that Allah mentioned, as if a branch 9You might have kissed, winked, gazed ?he said : no, , the Messenger of Allah said :did you have sex with her ? 18whoever cover s up for a Muslim’s mistake ,Allah will to cover up for him in this world and the Hereafter 16will you Leave him (why didn’t you)15¬IndexIslam’s tolerance in dealing with non-Muslims 4Islam’s tolerance in mercantile affairs and adjudication 12Islam’s tolerance in the prevention limit’s transgression 13Islam’s tolerance in cases of necessity 24Verses Index 26HadithIndex 27Index 28***
footnotes:==============================
(1) the end ,and dictionary ,section ,o m h.(2) Surah Maeda verse 13.(3) Al Hijr verse 85.(4) see Fath al-Qadeer for Al Shawkani 1/28.(5) Al Hasher verse 10.(6) Muslim, virtues of the Companions (2543), Ahmad (5/174).(7) Directed by Hakemand classed as saheeh and Dhahabi agreed with him (Mustadrak 2/553)(8)Muslim virtues of the Companions (2543), Ahmad (5/174).(9) Ibid. Book 4/1970h. 227.(10) Ibid. (2543), Ahmad (5/174).(11)Muslim’s explanation 16/97.(12) Al-Bukhaari, ransom (6502), and Muslim, oaths, warriors, retribution and ransom (1669), al-Tirmidhi, ransom (1422), Al-Nasa’i oaths (4715), Abu Dawood,ransom 4523, Ibn Majah ransom (2677).(13) Al-Bukhari, Book of ransom, oaths section 6898h.(14) Fath Al-Bari12/231-253.(15) Muslim’s explanation 11/147.(16) This Treaty was mentioned in the book of funds, by Abu Obaid Al-292-295 and funds, by Ibn Zenjoah 2/466-470 Ibn Hisham’s biography 2/92 and Al-Rawd Alanef 4/293and a set of political documents, 41-50.(17) Money 2/472.(18) Abu Obeid: Funds 296.(19) Civil society in the era of prophecy 127-128(20) Al-Baqarah verse: 222.(21) Sahih, Menstruation, 302.(22) Bukhari Medicine (5430), Muslim, Peace, 2189, Ibn Majah Medicine (3545), Ahmad (6/57).(23) Sahih Al-Bukhari, Book of Medicine, 5763h magic door.(24) Sahih Al-Bukhari-Book of interpretation -SuratAlImran8/784566h.(25) Surah Tawba verse 80.(26) Surat Tawba verse: 58.(27) Sahih Al-Bukhari-Book of the apostates being asked to repent–who refrained from fighting Kharijites section12/303H6933.(28) Al-Fath verse: 24.(29) Al-Fath verse: 24.(30) (Interpretation 2 /312-314h531), and directed by Ahmad (Musnad4/86 – 87), and Al Hakem (Mustadrak 2 /460-461) through Al-Hussein Bin Waqid, Al-Hakem said: Sahih under the two Shaykh’s conditions , and Al Dhahabi agreed, Haythami said: Narrated by Ahmad and his men, men of Saheeh (Mujama Al-Zawed 6/145), and Ibn Hajar said: Reported by Ahmad and Nasa’i from ‘Abd-Allah ibn Mughafal with a correct bond (Al-Fath 5/315), and the hadeeth was narrated by Muslim from the hadeeth of Anas(Saheeh3/1411h1784).(31) Sahih Muslim-Book of Jihad-the door of the conquest of Meccah178.(32) Behavior Bukhari (5634), Muslim zakat (1003), Abu Dawood, Zakat(1668), Ahmad (6/355).(33) Sahih Al-Bukhari – Behavior Book – the section of a polytheist boy relations, and a women relating to her mother and her husband 10/413H 5978 and 5979(34) Al-Sara break, is a type of silk, said: Suit of silk with lines of Abrism, see the end in estranged Hadith effect (2 / 433-434).(35) Sahih Al-Bukhari – Behavior Book – links with polytheist Brother section 10/414 H 5981.(36) See editing verdicts in the management of the people of Islam, by Imam Badr al-Din ibn jama234.(37) Financial Transactions by al-Tirmidhi (1264), Financial Transactions by Abu Dawood (3535), Al-Durami , Financial Transactions (2597).(38) Narrated by al-Tirmidhi in his Sunan – Financial Transactions book – H 1264 and classed as Hasan.(39) Sahih – ransom book oath section 6899 h.(40) Financial Transactions, Bukhari (1970) Financial Transactions – Tirmidhi (1320), Ibn Majah trades (2203), Ahmad (3/340).(41) Sahih Al-Bukhari – Financial Transactions Book – the section of ease and forgiveness in buying and selling h 2076.(42) Fath 4/307.(43) Financial Transactions, Bukhari (1971), Muslim Musaqah (1560), Ibn Majah provisions (2420), Ahmad (5/408), Al-Duramy , Financial Transactions (2546).(44) Sahih Al-Bukhari – Financial Transactions Book – see section of giving more time to the solvent 2077 h.(45) Fath 4/308.(46) See Islam’s direction (under the supervision of Cobb p 35), (quoting from the book, they said about Islam, p 468).(47) The means of proof p 160.(48) Ilam Al Mogaeen an Raab Al Alameen 2/119.(49) Al-Nur verse: 6.(50) Al-Nur verse: 9.(51)Sahih Bukhari, 8/303 to 304 h 4747 – as the interpretation, Surah Al-Nur verse itself, and the meaning: great and the meaning of Khaddlj: full.(52) Limits – Tirmidhi (1428), Ibn Majah Limits (2554), Ahmad (2/453).(53) Narrated by Ahmad, Ibn Majah and al-Tirmidhi (8/28 2360 h).(54) Limits – Tirmidhi (1428), Ibn Majah Limits (2554)(55) Classed as a good attribution (Irwa Al Galeel 7/354).(56) See Saheeh Muslim 3/1303.(57) Ahmad (5/257).(58) Narrated by Ahmad in his Musnad (5/256 257), and Iraqi said: Narrated by Ahmad with correct attribution (directing the revival of religious sciences 3/1362 H 2052)(59) Muslim , prayer , repentance , and seeking forgiveness (2699), Relations, Tirmidhi (1930), Abu Dawood, behavior (4946), introduction by Ibn Majah (225), Ahmad (2/500).(60) Saheeh Sunan al-Tirmidhi, 1574.(61) See disciplining differences by Aqrafa 4/123, 124 and the needy enrichment 4/461 Halabi edition year 1377 AH.(62) Means of proof in Islamic law 35.(63) See Saheeh Al-Bukhari – ransom – oaths section 6898 h.(64) Narrated by Ibn Abi Shaybah and al-Bayhaqi with a fixed bond (see Irwa 8/26).(65) Bukhari, limits (6430), Muslim limits (1691), Tirmidhi, limits (1429), Nasa’i funerals (1956), Abu Dawood, limits (4430), Ahmad (2/453).(66) Sahih Al-Bukhari, limits. (6815).(67) –Bukhari, limits (6438), Muslim, limits (1693), –Tirmidhi, limits (1427), Abu Dawood, limits (4421), Ahmad (1/270).(68) Narrated by Ahmad in his Musnad 1/338 and in the Sunan Abu Dawood, 4427 h and (Irwa 7/355).(69) Muslim limits (1695), Abu Dawood, limits (4442), Ahmad (5/348), Al-Durami, limits (2324).(70) Sahih Muslim, limits 5/119.(71) Narrated by Baihaqi in Great Sunnah 8/334 – 335 Albani (Irwa 8/29).(72) Sakhawi said: Narrated by Ibn Hazm, Sahih bond (good purposes p 30).(73) The rules of provisions in the interests of creatures 2/137.(74) Abu Dawood limits (4375), Ahmad (6/181).).(75) Narrated by Abu Dawood in his Sunan, limits, penalty pardon C 4375 and narrated by Bukhari in single behavior for c 465 and Ibn Haban in his Saheeh (Charity H 1520) and strengthen by Ibn Hajar and classed as hasan by Saladin Alaa (see the effort 17/316) and corrected by Albanian in (Silsilah h 638).(76) See the effort 17/315 – 316.(77) Muslim Repentance (2765), Abu Dawood, limits (4381), Ahmad (5/265).(78) Narrated by Abu Dawood in his Sunan, limits, on the man admitting a sin without naming it 4381 h, and the meaning does not name it, i.e. doesn’t intend it (the effort 17/325) and classed as saheeh in Saheeh Sunan Abi Dawood, 3682 h.(79) See the effort 17/326.(80) See the Arabs and Europe, p. 10, quoting , they said about Islam, p 327.(81) Surah Al-Maida (48).(82) Surah Al-Maida: 48.(83) Inclusive statement 8/486.(84) Surah Al-Maida: 48.(85) Narrated by al-Tabari 8/488 and Ibn Abi Hatim 4/1150, al-Bayhaqi in Names and Attributes, p 109, all by way of Ali ibn Abi Talha from Ibn Abbas.(86) Interpretation 8/489.(87) Al-Shura Verse 13 to 15.(88) See Al-Mustesfa 1/288.(89) See Crime and Punishment in Islamic jurisprudence, 2/41i the Arab thought house.(90) See judicial principles r 54 and legal accompanying 48, quoting from the book, the theory of case between Islamic law and civil and commercial law, A. D. Mohammed Naim Yasin edition, Dar world of books, Riyadh Al-586.(91) See legitimate necessity theory 73, 74.(92) See previous 315.(93) See legitimate necessity theory: 73, 315, 308.(94) Al-Fath verse: 28.(95) Al-Anbiya’ verse: 107.(96) Surah Yusuf verse: 104.(97) Surah Al-Imran verse: 96.    IntroductionPraise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds, the Forgiving, the Merciful, and peace be upon the prophet and his followers to the Day of Resurrection.
Tolerance refers to lenience and compassion, as Ibn Atheer said: ‘Tolerance is lenience’ El-Firozabadi said: ‘To be tolerant means to be lenient’ (1), and tolerance is a form of compassion towards souls, who are inclined to love whoever is kind to them. Tolerance contributes to love, harmony, and the renunciation of violence, for tolerance is the core of righteousness, a purified soul, free of violence and extremism.Moreover, Allah commanded His Messenger, peace be upon him, to manifest the utmost tolerance, for Allah says: ‘But bear with them and pardon them. Allah loveth the kind’ (2) He also says: ‘Forgive with a grace’ (3) Whereas amnesty means to grant pardon, forgiveness means a willingness to forgive (4) and willingness to forgive is of the utmost tolerance, something Allah commands his believers to manifest. Allah says: ‘And those who came into the faith after them say: Our Lord, Forgive us and our brethren who were before us in the faith, and place not in our hearts any ill will toward those who believe. Our Lord, you are Full of Pity, Merciful.’ (5).Furthermore, Allah has blessed us with a tolerant religion, which he bestowed upon the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him. This merciful religion in which friendliness, tolerance, forgiveness, and advice are emphasized in the religious texts of the Quran and the Prophetic tradition. Hence, the very first phase of tolerance was manifested in the Prophet’s city, peace be upon him, through his interactions with Muslims and Non-Muslims for his words and deeds were a demonstration of all aspects of tolerance.Unfortunately, some people are not aware of our religion’s reality. The truth is that pardoning, forgiveness, and tolerance are as integral parts of Islam, as Islam to them. The opposite of tolerance – violence or extremism – have no basis or justification in Islam, and are merely the result of a minority of people attempting to use religion to justify their own whimsical, misguided and evil desires. Therefore, I have gathered this research using clear evidences from the Quran, Sunnah and authentic history in order to clarify Islam’s righteous standpoint.Islam’s Tolerance in interacting with non-MuslimsThe Prophet’s tolerance, peace be upon him, was not just limited to Muslims, but included people of the Book and other religions as well. For example, he told Muslims to be kind to Coptic Christians when he said: ‘When you concur Egypt be kind to Copts, for they have sanctity an connections’ (6) (7). In Saheeh Muslim there is a hadith: ‘You will encounter a land in which ‘carat’ is used and mentioned there, so be kind to its people for they have sanctity and connections’ (8) (9). Al-Nawawi mentioned in a narration, ‘You will encouter Egypt, a land in which carat is mentioned; they have sanctity and connections’ (10) … Carat is a currency which is part of dinar, dirham, and others, which Egyptians used and spoke a lot about it; as for its sanctity, its right and prohibition in the sense of Alzmam, whereas connections refers to: Hajar, mother of Ismail, being one of them and Maria Qubtia Ibrahim’s mother (11).As for his tolerance with Jews, the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, accepted and believed in Jews testimony as when they swore that they did not murder, nor know who was the culprit in the murderer of one of the companions killed in a Jewish neighborhood in Khaybar. As Bukhaari narrated from Bashir ibn Yasar: ‘It was claimed that a man from Ansar called Sahl ibn Abi Hathmah told him, that some of his people set off to Khaybar where they found a dead man, and said to the ones who found him, “You killed our companion.” But they replied, “We didn’t murder him nor do we know his murderer.” They then went to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and said, “O Messenger of Allah, we set off to Khaybar and found one of us dead!” He said, “That is one of the greatest sins. Do you have any evidence of who killed him?” They replied, “No.” He said, “Then they have to swear.” The companions protested, “But do we accept a Jews testimony?” The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, hated the idea of a murderer being unknown, so instead paid one hundred camels from charity as ransom’ (12) (13).Ibn Hajar said in his explanation of the noun ‘swear’ that it is according to the testimony of the deceased’s relatives, and if they demanded defendants or murderers to be subjected to penalty, he also denoted the word (qasama – testimony) to murder in particular. Imam of the Two Holy mosques said that to linguists, testimony is a designation referring to people who swear and testify. He also said in ‘Mohkam’: Testimony refers to a group swearing or testifying to something they’ve witnessed. Al-Qurtubi said in ‘Mufhm’: The Prophet, peace be upon him, accepted their testimony due to his wisdom and generosity as well as to ward off evil and bring about righteousness and harmony, especially since the convict remained unknown. Judge Iyad said: ‘This Hadith is one of the sources and principles of Islam’s verdicts, since it was espoused by all the imams, the companions’ predecessor, followers, nation’s scholars of the regions of Hijaz, Sham, and Kofa’ (14). Al-Nawawi in his explanation of this hadith said, ‘This demonstrates the validity of taking testimony from a non-Muslim’ (15).In addition, if we examine the treaties made by the Prophet, peace be upon him, we will notice the varied aspects of tolerance and equality in these treaties, such as The Madinah Constitutional Announcement, which had forty-seven paragraphs, and included a treaties sections with the Jews; some of it is as follows:24 – Jews spend money with Muslims as long as they’re warriors.31 – Jews of Bani Thalaba, have the same right as Jews of Bani Awf except for those who sin and are unjust .37 – Jews and Muslims should provide for themselves independently, but must work together in defeating whoever battles them; and they should counsel and advise each other.45 – When they are asked to reconcile they must reconcile, as each side must ally with the other parties’ allies, except for those who fight us against our religion.46 – As Jews and their masters, have the same rights as the right of Jews mentioned in this document, and Allah is the best witness to this document.47 – This treaty doesn’t guarantee the rights of the sinful or unjust, but whoever ventures out of Madina is safe, and whoever resides in it is safe, except for the heinously sinful or unjust. May Allah protect the righteous, and the Messenger of Allah Muhammad, peace be upon him. (16).Ibn Zenjoah commented about the quote, ‘Jews spend money with Muslims as long as they’re warriors,’ refers to spending money on battle in particular, for they are required in assisting them in their battles against their enemies, and therefore Jews had to contribute in Muslims’ battles and in return Muslims shared the spoils with them. As for saying, ‘Jews of Bani Awf are part of Muslims’ nation,’ it refers to their assistance to Muslims in battle through their stipulated alimony, although doesn’t refer to their religion since it is stated: ‘Jews have their religion and Muslims have their religion.’ (17).Furthermore, the biographer Dr. Akram Ben Dhia Alomrey, in analyzing this treaty, explains that 25 to 35 addressed the relationship with Aws and Khazraj Jews, as it referred to their Arabic tribes, and approved of their treaty with Muslims. ‘Jews of Bani Awf are part of Muslims’ nation’: this phrase has been mentioned in the book, ‘A Nation of Believers,’ which quoted Abu Obaid as saying, ‘He was referring to their assistance to Muslims in battling their enemies, through their stipulated alimony, but it doesn’t refer to their religion as he stated: Jews have their religion and Muslims have their religion.’ (18) Ibn Ishak said: ‘With the faithful’ is the more accurate phrase (19).The Prophet’s tolerance is demonstrated in how he dealt with the people of the scripture as well as with those who violated certain commands. Despite discovering their violations he gave them milk as a gift. His tolerance is also demonstrated in how he dealt with Labeed Ben Aloasm who cast a spell on him by using a lock of his hair and throwing it with dried palms’ pollen in Rawan well. When he told Aisha about it she exclaimed, ‘Do we not extract it?’ But he replied, ‘I was cured, and I hated to stir the evil within that might affect people, so ordered it to be buried’ (22) (23) Moreover, he was even forgiving with some of the hypocrites and pardoned the hypocrite Abdullah ibn Abi ibn Salool who spread the fabrication story (24); he even covered Abdullah ibn Salool with his shirt when he died, and ask forgiveness for him, until Allah revealed: ‘Whether you ask forgiveness for the hypocrites, or do not ask forgiveness for them, it is the same; for even if you ask forgiveness for them seventy times Allah will not forgive them’ (25).Likewise, the Prophet, peace be upon him, pardoned Abdullah bin Al Kwaisira Attamimi when, while the Prophet was dividing the spoils, he said to him, ‘O Messenger of Allah, be just.’ The Prophet replied: ‘Woe if I’m not just then who is?’ ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab said ‘Let me strike his neck.’ But the Prophet said, ‘Let him be, for he has companions who you would scorn your prayers if you compare it to their prayers, and fasting with their fasts, yet they pass through religion as an arrow from the bow, and if you look at the blade, there is nothing there, then look at the stem, there is nothing there, then look at its feathers and there is nothing there; it preceded blood and flesh…’ Here he uses metaphor comparing the speed in which they leave religion to the speed of a dart that penetrates flesh, without blood or flesh sticking to it, due to its speed. He continued: ‘Their symbol is a man in which one of his hands is like a swaying piece of meat; they revolt against a group of people.’ Abu Sa’eed said: ‘I bear witness, I heard from the Prophet, peace be upon him, and I bear witness that Ali killed them while I was with him.’ It is also said that this verse was revealed about The man who reproached the Prophet peace be upon about the spoils. Allah said: ‘And of them is he who defameth you in the matter of the alms.’ (26)) (27). All this is evidence of the Messenger’s, peace be upon him, great tolerance that he pardoned him.He also had very tolerant interactions with non-Muslims. As Nasai narrated, Abdullah bin Mugafal Muzani said: ‘We were with the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, in Alhdibah at the origin of the tree that Allah mentioned, and one the branches of that tree was on the back of the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him, so I lifted it from his back, and Ali ibn Abi Talib and Suhail bin Amr were with him; then the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said, ‘Write down, “In the name of Allah the most Merciful, the most Gracious.” Suhail took his hand and said: “We don’t know the Merciful, write in our case, as we are accustomed to.” The Prophet said: “Write down God, in the name of thee.” This is how Muhammad the Messenger of Allah reconciled with the people of Mecca. Suhail then stopped his hand and said: “We have wronged you. If you are a messenger, write down in our case as we know, he said: “Write: ‘This is what Mohammed bin Abdullah bin Abdul Muttalib reconciled on, and I am the Messenger of God.'” He wrote as such, then thirty armed young men came out, raging in anger, and the Prophet peace be upon him prayed to Allah and then Allah took their sight. Then the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said, “Did you come under someone’s command or did someone ensure your safety?” They said they didn’t so he released them.’ And Allah Almighty revealed: ‘He it is Who has withheld men’s hands from you, and hath withheld your hands from them in the valley of Mecca, after He had made you victors over them. Allah is the Seer of what you do.’ (28) (29)) (30).Although he could have captured or killed them, his tolerance let them go and say to the people of Mecca: Go you are free. The Prophet’s tolerance is manifested even at battle when he said to them: ‘Whoever enters Abu Sufyan’s house of is safe, whoever closes his door is safe, and whoever throws away his armor is safe.’ (31) He was also forgiving with idolaters, as he did not prevent Muslims from interacting with their non-Muslim parents. Bukhaari narrated from Asma Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with them: ‘My mother wanted to visit me in the era of the Prophet, peace be upon him, and so I asked the Prophet whether I should keep connections with her and he said yes’ (32) (33).Practicing tolerance bears fruit at all times, and we witness its impact upon the companions and followers and those who came after them to this day; we see the caliphate Ibn Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, tolerance with the non-Muslims. Bukhaari narrates from Abdullah ibn Dinar: ‘I heard Ibn ‘Umar say: “Umar saw a Sara suit (34) being sold and said: O Messenger of Allah, buy this and wear it on Friday, and when delegates come”; but he replied: “Those who wear this are only the ones who have no clothes,” then the Prophet peace be upon him received some of these clothes and sent Umar one of them. Umar then said: “How can I wear it after what you have said?” He said: “I did not send it for you to wear, but to sell it or give it away.” Umar then sent it to his brother from the people of Mecca before he converted to Islam.’ (35). Another example, is in the time of Mu’awiya may Allah be pleased with him, when the infidels broke their treaty with Muslims yet the Muslims didn’t fight them and said rather: ‘Loyalty instead of treason is better than treason with an excuse’ (36).Likewise, the Prophet, peace be upon him, espoused an approach of utmost tolerance, as when he said: ‘Pay back what were entrusted to, to the one who entrusted you, and never betray the one who betrays’ (37) (38). There is another model in the time of the followers, Bukhaari narrated that Abu Qulaba said that Umar bin Abdul Aziz said to people: What do you think of testimonies? They said: testimonies are the code of righteousness, and caliphs have benefited from it. Then he told me: what do you say, O Abu Qulaba? And people have appointed me? I said: O Commander of the Faithful, you have armies and honorable Arab leaders, what would you do if fifty of them testified that an immune (what is meant by this?) man in Damascus had committed adultery, but didn’t witness that, would you have punished him? He said: No. I said: What would you do if fifty of them testified that a man in Homs committed thievery, would you have punished him, when they didn’t witness it? He said: No… (39). Thus, testimony is an accurate method in validating and verifying the convict, while suspicions are not.Islam’s’ tolerance in mercantile affairs and adjudication:The Prophet, peace be upon him, also urged people to maintain tolerance while buying or selling, he said: ‘May Allah have mercy on a tolerant man while selling, purchasing and demanding adjudication’ (40) (41) this includes dealing with both Muslim and non-Muslims.Ibn Hajar said: ‘The phrase “May Allah have mercy on a man” is either a prayer or an informative phrase.’ Ibn Habeeb al-Maliki and Ibn Battal and Daoudi asserted the first assumption… as ‘tolerant’ means lenient, an adjective… and the word tolerant is derived from tolerance; and ‘adjudication’ means to demand adjudication with a tolerant attitude… This motivates Muslims to embrace tolerant morals, refrain from bickering, and be forgiving with people (42).Similarly, the Prophet, peace be upon him, urged Muslims to be tolerant in loans and postpone it for the insolvent, he said: ‘Angels received a man of those who came before you and said: “Did you do any virtuous deed?” He said: “I commanded my subordinates to be tolerant with loaners and postpone it for the insolvent.” For this he was forgiven.’ (43) (44 ).Hafiz Ibn Hajar states that the solvent and insolvent refer to the same word, but were used here to refer to insolvency due to custom (45). This demonstrates that tolerance includes varied aspects, such as the economic aspect in buying and selling, which is carried out every day, and reveals that tolerance is not uncommon but is constantly renewed.Islam’s tolerance of in preventing limit’s transgressionSome hostile anti-Islamists claim that Islam is a violent religion, founded or spread by the sword and that some Islamic limits and rules are too intense, barbaric or uncivilized. A serious accusation against Islam’s tolerance. These rumors which target Islam have been spreading since the incident of fabrication to our time, as these rumors are a form of psychological warfare. I translate here the words of the German orientalist DC Kambfmaar, editor of the Muslim world magazine: ‘The attack on Islam is futile, as it won’t keep Muslims away from their religion, and won’t hinder Islamic Renaissance, but only reinforce it’ (46) Thus, Islamaphobes must learn that Islam only used the sword against those who threatened the safety and sovereignty of the polity, just like any modern nation would do today in self-defense. When Islam was actually an empire or a nation – in pre-modern times – it always gave freedom of religion to non-Muslims and would even protect them and their churches, temples, etc. in return for a tax collected from them.Moreover, whatever few penalties do exist in Islamic law, they are very seldom carried out, and the spirit of forgiveness, pardon and tolerance is always superior. Most potential can never in fact be carried out because the necessary conditions are not met, such as establishing unwavering proof on the crime and the perpetrator, without a shadow of doubt, by securing up to 4 sane, adult witnesses. The wisdom in requiring so many eye-witnesses is that Allah loves forgiveness, and thus it is actually rare and difficult to administer penal punishment because such a number of legitimate witnesses are rarely found or present. (47). Ibn al-Qayyim, may Allah have mercy on him, said: ‘It is due to Allah’s wisdom and mercy that he does not punish perpetrators in this life or the Hereafter without establishing tangible proof against them; and that proof is either admitting the crime or producing valid evidence presented by just witnesses’ (48).Even if someone harbors a desire to commit a heinous crime or intends to do it, he is strongly reprimanded but never actually punished unless he actually commits it; as when the Prophet, peace be upon him, advised a young man who came to him requesting permission to commit adultery. Instead of giving him harsh words or shouting, the Prophet, peace be upon him, asked him in an even tone: ‘Would you like such a thing for your mother?’ ‘No, of course not, I swear may Allah make me your redemption,’ replied the man; the Prophet then said: ‘And people wouldn’t like it for their mothers either. And would you like for your daughter?’ The man replied, ‘No I swear! May Allah make me your redemption O Messenger of Allah!’ The Prophet continued ‘And people wouldn’t like it for their daughters either. And would you like for your sister? or for your aunt?’ And the man replied as before. Then the Prophet put his hand on the man’s chest and said: ‘Oh Allah, forgive his sins, cleanse his heart and protect his chastity,’ and it is said that the boy never had any of these inclinations again after the Prophet’s prayer ) (57) (58).The Prophet’s tolerance prevented him from punishing or harshly reproaching the young man. There were some companions who wanted to reproach him, but the Prophet’s inquires, peace be upon him, taught that young man and others a great lesson, reminding them that adultery with a woman is inevitably adultery either with someone’s mother, daughter, sister or aunt; such a realization refines one’ emotions and brings reason back to his mind. Even more, it is incumbent on a Muslim to cover the faults of his brother or sister in faith, and not to reveal someone’s sins openly. ‘He who covers up a Muslim’s sins in this world, Allah will cover up for him in this world and hereafter. (59) (60)It is also accepted that righteous acts of worship such as prayer and fasting will expiate for sins or misdeeds. Abi Omamamay, Allah be pleased with him, said that a man came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, I have transgressed so give me the penalty.’ The Prophet asked: ‘Did you perform abolition before you came?’ He said, Yes. Then he asked: ‘Did you pray with us while we prayed?’ He said, Yes. Finally he said, ‘Go, for Allah the Almighty has forgiven you.’ (77) (78), This Hadith emphasizes the importance of tolerance. Al-Nawawi said that the sin he committed was a minor sin (79). This also demonstrates tolerance, forgiveness and general facilitation in Islam. Even the Orientalist Louis Young says: The west has yet to learn various things from the Islamic civilization; one of those things is the Arabs’ tolerant disposition (80).When there are penalties in Islam, they are in fact consistent with the provisions of previous penal codes in other religions such as Judaism and Christianity. Thus, the consistency between Islamic laws and the people of the Book with regards to scriptures, indicates that divine celestial religious laws are compatible in many of the provisions that came from one source, i.e. God.This does not mean that Islam was influenced by the Romans or the people of the scriptures, but that the Quran was revealed as the seal of the divine books sent to humankind, just as Muhammad was the last of all prophets. Allah said in the Quran: ‘We have revealed the Scripture to you with truth, confirming that which came before it as a watcher over it,’ (81). Imam al-Tabari says: ‘We revealed a ratification of earlier books which Allah revealed to His prophets’ (82) ‘We have sent down the Book which We revealed to you, O Muhammad, that confirms the books that preceded it, and a proof that they are sent from Allah.’ (83). Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: ‘A watcher over it’ (84) means the dominant, since the Quran codifies and seals all the scriptures before it (85). Al-Tabari narrated that Hasan al-Basri said: ‘This means certifying these books, and a watcher over them (86). Allah said: ‘He ordained for you the same religion which He sent unto Noah, and that which We inspire in you, O Muhammad, and that which We sent unto Abraham and Moses and Jesus, saying: Establish the religion, and be not divided therein. Dreadful for the idolaters is that unto which you call them. Allah chooses for Himself whom He wills, and guides unto Himself whoever turns toward Him. (13) They were not divided until after the knowledge came to them, through rivalry among themselves; and had it not been for a Word that had already gone forth from your Lord for an appointed term, it surely had been judged between them. And those who were made to inherit the Scripture after them are in hopeless doubt concerning it. (14) Call unto this, O Muhammad. And be upright as you are commanded, and do not follow their lusts, but say rather: I believe in whatever scripture Allah has sent down, and I am commanded to be just among you. Allah is our Lord and your Lord. We have our works and you have yours; there is no dispute between us. Allah will bring us together, and to Him is the journeying.’ (87). Thus the Sharia that Allah has legislated to us is the same sharia that he legislated to previous nations in the eras of Noah, Abraham, Jesus and Moses, peace and blessings be upon all of them.The great scholar Imam al-Ghazali mentioned that religious laws – even amongst different religions – have differed very little (88). This was also conveyed by Muhammad Abu Zahra, who added the penalties in any society help protect the individual and public from harm or wrongdoing, and helps to sustain basic human rights (89).
Even more, Islam’s tolerance is manifested in the right of self-defense, since a defendant has the right to defend himself and getting the charges dropped, either by proving the invalidity of charges pressed against him, or by proving that the plaintiff has no right to press charges against him. This concept is defined by some scholars as ‘dropping charges’: a lawsuit brought in court by the defendant, with the intention of dropping charges or invalidating it (90).Islam’s tolerance in cases of necessityIslam always took care not to carry out penalties in times of hardship, such as famine and poverty, or other difficult or forced situations. Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, denoted them cases (fourteen in all) of exception as follows: the need for food (hunger or thirst), medicine, coercion, forgetfulness, ignorance, hardship or shame, calamity , travel, illness, natural lack (91). Each one of these cases has its verdicts, provisions and facilitations, and aren’t blameworthy all the time; this is due to Islam’s inherent lenience and tolerance, which should and must take into account these cases and how they might be forgiven and pardoned .The French legalist Lambert said: ‘ The theory of necessity in Islamic jurisprudence is more assertive and inclusive than the idea founded in public international law, in the theory of changing circumstances (of the case remaining as it is), in the French administrative court, in the theory of emergency circumstances, in English court, in inflexibility theory in suspension of commitment under the economic circumstances pressure, caused by war, and in the American judiciary constitutional theory of sudden accidents’ (92).The German and French legal Anglo-Saxon schools, were in fact influenced by Islamic jurisprudence in the theory of legitimate necessity. As one scholar notes: ‘The theory of necessity in the general law, is biased on the same principles of legitimate defense rights in criminal law, for countries’ self-defense is the same as humans’ self-defense against what he is threatened with, as all laws agree on the deterrence of legitimate self-defense punishment, although they differ in the basis upon which to build this right and its limits and extent. These two opinions are: 1) the belief that defense is one of the reasons for legalization committed deeds, and 2) defense is merely an excuse to prevent criminal responsibility. The German school, in accordance with Islamic jurisprudence, espoused the first opinion, while the French Anglo-Saxon school espoused the second opinion, which itself is sometimes is compatible or permitted in some cases of Islamic Jurisprudence (93).
Finally, the theme of Islam’ tolerance proves that Islam has nothing to do with violence or extremism, for it is the religion of ease and lenience , an eternal sign of toleration and mercy; Allah Almighty says: ‘He has sent His messenger with the guidance and the religion of truth, that He may cause it to prevail.’ (94) Hence, Islam is a universal religion, and Allah is the only god worthy of worship , and His Messenger, is a mercy to humanity. Allah Almighty says: ‘We sent you as a mercy to the worlds.’ (95) and the Quran is a reminder of this mercy to the world: ‘It is a reminder to the peoples.’ (96)And our final prayer is, praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds._______________________________________________
Verses IndexAsk forgiveness for them (O Muhammad), or ask not forgiveness for them; though thou ask forgiveness for them seventy times Allah will not forgive them.8He hath ordained for you that religion which He commended unto Noah, and that which We inspire in thee 22And because of their breaking their covenant, We have cursed them and made hard their hearts. They change words from their context 2Unto this, then, summon (O Muhammad). And be thou upright as thou art commanded, and follow not their lusts, but say: I believe in whatever scripture Allah hath sent down22He it is Who hath sent His messenger with the guidance and the religion of truth, that He may cause it to prevail over all religion. And Allah suffices as a Witness 25And unto thee have We revealed the Scripture with the truth, confirming whatever Scripture was before it, and a watcher over it 21that the wrath of Allah be upon her if he speaketh truth..14And those who came (into the faith) after them say: Our Lord! Forgive us and our brethren who were before us in the faith. 2As for those who accuse their wives but have no witnesses except themselves; let the testimony of one of them be four testimonies14And they were not divided until after the knowledge came unto them, through rivalry among themselves; and had it not been for a Word that had already gone forth from thy Lord for an appointed term, 22We created not the heavens and the earth and all that is between them save with truth, and lo! the Hour is surely coming 2And He it is Who hath withheld men’s hands from you, and hath withheld your hands from them, in the valley of Mecca, after He had made you victors over them 9They question thee (O Muhammad) concerning menstruation. Say: It is an illness, so let women alone at such times7
________________________________________________________Hadith IndexMy nation came to me submissively, in the time of the Prophet , I asked the Prophet about its origin? He Said: Yes 10Would you like it for your mother? he said: No, I swear , May Allah make me your redemption , he said: people do not like for their mothers 0.16A man came to the Messenger of Allah in a mosque, called out and said, O Messenger of Allah, I committed adultery 0.17pay-off what you have been entrusted in ,to who entrusted you, and do not betray the one who betrays 11When you concur Egypt be kind to Copts , for they have sanctity an connections 4Forgive the morals’ mistakes , except for limits 19Jews didn’t engage in any sexual intercourse with their wives if they menstruated , nor meet with them in their houses 7That a man came to the Prophet said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, I have violated a limit , he said: did you perform abolition ?20Hilal bin Umaya accused his wife of committing adultery with Sharik Bin Samha ,in the presence of the Prophet, the Prophet then said : proof 14While the Prophet was dividing the spoils , a man came to him and said: O Messenger of Allah ,be just . He said :woe , who would be just if I wasn’t 8The angels Received a man from those who came before you , they said : have you done any virtuous deed? 12Maez bin Malik came to the Prophet and said, ‘O Messenger of Allah purify me, he said : woe ,go back 18‘Umar saw a Alsara suit , a type of fabric 10Allah bless a tolerant man if he sells, purchases , and demands judgment 12Claimed that a man from the Ansar called Sahl ibn Abi Hathmah told him that a party of his people, 4You will concur a land, in which carat is mentioned there (as in used),so be kind to its people for they have sanctity and connections 4You will concur Egypt, a land in which carat is mentioned , included: they have sanctity and connections 4He felt the pain of stoning and cried out: O my people take me back to the Messenger of Allah, my clan killed me 15I was cured, and I hated to stir the evil within that might affect people, ordered it to be buried 8We were with the Messenger of Allah in alhdibah ,at the origin of the tree that Allah mentioned, as if a branch 9You might have kissed, winked, gazed ?he said : no, , the Messenger of Allah said :did you have sex with her ? 18whoever cover s up for a Muslim’s mistake ,Allah will to cover up for him in this world and the Hereafter 16will you Leave him (why didn’t you)15¬IndexIslam’s tolerance in dealing with non-Muslims 4Islam’s tolerance in mercantile affairs and adjudication 12Islam’s tolerance in the prevention limit’s transgression 13Islam’s tolerance in cases of necessity 24Verses Index 26HadithIndex 27Index 28***
footnotes:==============================
(1) the end ,and dictionary ,section ,o m h.(2) Surah Maeda verse 13.(3) Al Hijr verse 85.(4) see Fath al-Qadeer for Al Shawkani 1/28.(5) Al Hasher verse 10.(6) Muslim, virtues of the Companions (2543), Ahmad (5/174).(7) Directed by Hakemand classed as saheeh and Dhahabi agreed with him (Mustadrak 2/553)(8)Muslim virtues of the Companions (2543), Ahmad (5/174).(9) Ibid. Book 4/1970h. 227.(10) Ibid. (2543), Ahmad (5/174).(11)Muslim’s explanation 16/97.(12) Al-Bukhaari, ransom (6502), and Muslim, oaths, warriors, retribution and ransom (1669), al-Tirmidhi, ransom (1422), Al-Nasa’i oaths (4715), Abu Dawood,ransom 4523, Ibn Majah ransom (2677).(13) Al-Bukhari, Book of ransom, oaths section 6898h.(14) Fath Al-Bari12/231-253.(15) Muslim’s explanation 11/147.(16) This Treaty was mentioned in the book of funds, by Abu Obaid Al-292-295 and funds, by Ibn Zenjoah 2/466-470 Ibn Hisham’s biography 2/92 and Al-Rawd Alanef 4/293and a set of political documents, 41-50.(17) Money 2/472.(18) Abu Obeid: Funds 296.(19) Civil society in the era of prophecy 127-128(20) Al-Baqarah verse: 222.(21) Sahih, Menstruation, 302.(22) Bukhari Medicine (5430), Muslim, Peace, 2189, Ibn Majah Medicine (3545), Ahmad (6/57).(23) Sahih Al-Bukhari, Book of Medicine, 5763h magic door.(24) Sahih Al-Bukhari-Book of interpretation -SuratAlImran8/784566h.(25) Surah Tawba verse 80.(26) Surat Tawba verse: 58.(27) Sahih Al-Bukhari-Book of the apostates being asked to repent–who refrained from fighting Kharijites section12/303H6933.(28) Al-Fath verse: 24.(29) Al-Fath verse: 24.(30) (Interpretation 2 /312-314h531), and directed by Ahmad (Musnad4/86 – 87), and Al Hakem (Mustadrak 2 /460-461) through Al-Hussein Bin Waqid, Al-Hakem said: Sahih under the two Shaykh’s conditions , and Al Dhahabi agreed, Haythami said: Narrated by Ahmad and his men, men of Saheeh (Mujama Al-Zawed 6/145), and Ibn Hajar said: Reported by Ahmad and Nasa’i from ‘Abd-Allah ibn Mughafal with a correct bond (Al-Fath 5/315), and the hadeeth was narrated by Muslim from the hadeeth of Anas(Saheeh3/1411h1784).(31) Sahih Muslim-Book of Jihad-the door of the conquest of Meccah178.(32) Behavior Bukhari (5634), Muslim zakat (1003), Abu Dawood, Zakat(1668), Ahmad (6/355).(33) Sahih Al-Bukhari – Behavior Book – the section of a polytheist boy relations, and a women relating to her mother and her husband 10/413H 5978 and 5979(34) Al-Sara break, is a type of silk, said: Suit of silk with lines of Abrism, see the end in estranged Hadith effect (2 / 433-434).(35) Sahih Al-Bukhari – Behavior Book – links with polytheist Brother section 10/414 H 5981.(36) See editing verdicts in the management of the people of Islam, by Imam Badr al-Din ibn jama234.(37) Financial Transactions by al-Tirmidhi (1264), Financial Transactions by Abu Dawood (3535), Al-Durami , Financial Transactions (2597).(38) Narrated by al-Tirmidhi in his Sunan – Financial Transactions book – H 1264 and classed as Hasan.(39) Sahih – ransom book oath section 6899 h.(40) Financial Transactions, Bukhari (1970) Financial Transactions – Tirmidhi (1320), Ibn Majah trades (2203), Ahmad (3/340).(41) Sahih Al-Bukhari – Financial Transactions Book – the section of ease and forgiveness in buying and selling h 2076.(42) Fath 4/307.(43) Financial Transactions, Bukhari (1971), Muslim Musaqah (1560), Ibn Majah provisions (2420), Ahmad (5/408), Al-Duramy , Financial Transactions (2546).(44) Sahih Al-Bukhari – Financial Transactions Book – see section of giving more time to the solvent 2077 h.(45) Fath 4/308.(46) See Islam’s direction (under the supervision of Cobb p 35), (quoting from the book, they said about Islam, p 468).(47) The means of proof p 160.(48) Ilam Al Mogaeen an Raab Al Alameen 2/119.(49) Al-Nur verse: 6.(50) Al-Nur verse: 9.(51)Sahih Bukhari, 8/303 to 304 h 4747 – as the interpretation, Surah Al-Nur verse itself, and the meaning: great and the meaning of Khaddlj: full.(52) Limits – Tirmidhi (1428), Ibn Majah Limits (2554), Ahmad (2/453).(53) Narrated by Ahmad, Ibn Majah and al-Tirmidhi (8/28 2360 h).(54) Limits – Tirmidhi (1428), Ibn Majah Limits (2554)(55) Classed as a good attribution (Irwa Al Galeel 7/354).(56) See Saheeh Muslim 3/1303.(57) Ahmad (5/257).(58) Narrated by Ahmad in his Musnad (5/256 257), and Iraqi said: Narrated by Ahmad with correct attribution (directing the revival of religious sciences 3/1362 H 2052)(59) Muslim , prayer , repentance , and seeking forgiveness (2699), Relations, Tirmidhi (1930), Abu Dawood, behavior (4946), introduction by Ibn Majah (225), Ahmad (2/500).(60) Saheeh Sunan al-Tirmidhi, 1574.(61) See disciplining differences by Aqrafa 4/123, 124 and the needy enrichment 4/461 Halabi edition year 1377 AH.(62) Means of proof in Islamic law 35.(63) See Saheeh Al-Bukhari – ransom – oaths section 6898 h.(64) Narrated by Ibn Abi Shaybah and al-Bayhaqi with a fixed bond (see Irwa 8/26).(65) Bukhari, limits (6430), Muslim limits (1691), Tirmidhi, limits (1429), Nasa’i funerals (1956), Abu Dawood, limits (4430), Ahmad (2/453).(66) Sahih Al-Bukhari, limits. (6815).(67) –Bukhari, limits (6438), Muslim, limits (1693), –Tirmidhi, limits (1427), Abu Dawood, limits (4421), Ahmad (1/270).(68) Narrated by Ahmad in his Musnad 1/338 and in the Sunan Abu Dawood, 4427 h and (Irwa 7/355).(69) Muslim limits (1695), Abu Dawood, limits (4442), Ahmad (5/348), Al-Durami, limits (2324).(70) Sahih Muslim, limits 5/119.(71) Narrated by Baihaqi in Great Sunnah 8/334 – 335 Albani (Irwa 8/29).(72) Sakhawi said: Narrated by Ibn Hazm, Sahih bond (good purposes p 30).(73) The rules of provisions in the interests of creatures 2/137.(74) Abu Dawood limits (4375), Ahmad (6/181).).(75) Narrated by Abu Dawood in his Sunan, limits, penalty pardon C 4375 and narrated by Bukhari in single behavior for c 465 and Ibn Haban in his Saheeh (Charity H 1520) and strengthen by Ibn Hajar and classed as hasan by Saladin Alaa (see the effort 17/316) and corrected by Albanian in (Silsilah h 638).(76) See the effort 17/315 – 316.(77) Muslim Repentance (2765), Abu Dawood, limits (4381), Ahmad (5/265).(78) Narrated by Abu Dawood in his Sunan, limits, on the man admitting a sin without naming it 4381 h, and the meaning does not name it, i.e. doesn’t intend it (the effort 17/325) and classed as saheeh in Saheeh Sunan Abi Dawood, 3682 h.(79) See the effort 17/326.(80) See the Arabs and Europe, p. 10, quoting , they said about Islam, p 327.(81) Surah Al-Maida (48).(82) Surah Al-Maida: 48.(83) Inclusive statement 8/486.(84) Surah Al-Maida: 48.(85) Narrated by al-Tabari 8/488 and Ibn Abi Hatim 4/1150, al-Bayhaqi in Names and Attributes, p 109, all by way of Ali ibn Abi Talha from Ibn Abbas.(86) Interpretation 8/489.(87) Al-Shura Verse 13 to 15.(88) See Al-Mustesfa 1/288.(89) See Crime and Punishment in Islamic jurisprudence, 2/41i the Arab thought house.(90) See judicial principles r 54 and legal accompanying 48, quoting from the book, the theory of case between Islamic law and civil and commercial law, A. D. Mohammed Naim Yasin edition, Dar world of books, Riyadh Al-586.(91) See legitimate necessity theory 73, 74.(92) See previous 315.(93) See legitimate necessity theory: 73, 315, 308.(94) Al-Fath verse: 28.(95) Al-Anbiya’ verse: 107.(96) Surah Yusuf verse: 104.(97) Surah Al-Imran verse: 96.

 

    By: Hanaa Mohammed